37. Countries, businesses, and schools are three areasthat need good leaders. Choose one of these three areasand describe the most important qualities of a leader inthat area. Explain why these qualities are important, using specific examples and details.
The principal of a school is one of our first encounters with afigure of authority. Consequently, he or she must be a goodexample of a leader. The principal must be firm, fair and foresighted which are important qualities ofa principal.
When a principal announces a rule, you must understand that he or she means it. If a rule requiresall students to be in their seats when the bell rings, the rule must be enforced. If students are outof their seats, they should be punished. If a rule requires that students not wear bats in school, therule must be enforced. If students wear bats, the bats must be taken away from them. A principalmust be firm.
When a principal enforces a rule, you must understand that he or she will treat everyone equally. IfI get caught eating at my desk, I must receive the same punishment that my classmate got whenshe got caught eating at her desk. If a sophomore is late for school, he or she must receive thesame punishment that a senior would. A principal must be fair.
When a principal establishes a rule, you must understand that he or she has a good reason for it. Ifa rule requires that students must participate in extracurricular sports, you should understand thatthe principal knows that a strong body as well as a strong mind will help us in the future. If a rulerequires that students must do two hours of volunteer work in the community each week, youshould understand that the principal knows that close involvement in the community builds strongcharacter. A principal must be foresighted.
A principal’s job is not as easy one. I only hope that in the future, I can model my own leadershipabilities on the ones I observed in school. I hope I can be as firm, fair, and foresighted as myprincipal.
38 Choose one of the following transportation vehicles and explain why you think it haschanged people’s lives.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
An airplane is a form of transportation that has changed people’s lives. Thanks to the plane, ourlives are now faster, more exciting, and more convenient that before.
You cannot deny that a plane is fast. For example, the Concorde flies at supersonic speed. Abusinessman can leave Paris at 11 a.m. in the morning and arrive in New York at 8 a.m. the samemorning in time for a day’s work. Many business people in Europe will fly to London for a noonmorning in time for a day’s work. Many business people in Europe will fly to London for a noonmeeting and then return home to Rome or Madrid for dinner.
It is always exciting to take a plane trip. When you take a trip by plane, you know that you mightcross many time zones, many oceans, and many countries. When you get off the plane, youcould be in a place that speaks a different language. A plane is like a magician’s trick. You get in abox and you come out somewhere totally different.
Nothing can beat the convenience of a plane. In the old days, it might take you days to do whatthe plane can do it an hour. Boats, for example, only leave on certain days of the week and take along time to get to their destination. Planes give you the option to leave several times a day andget you to your destination quickly.
Although other forms of transportation may be more comfortable, none has changed the way wedo business and live our lives more than the plane. Thanks to the speed, excitement, andconvenience of the planes, our lives are richer.
45 Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry are more important that saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
In the past, there have been many endangered animals. Now they are extinct. Does it matter? Has our environment been affected by their absence? Has the quality of our own life been changed? The answer to these questions is “Yes.”
Yes. It does matter if we destroy an endangered species habitat to develop more farmland, housing or industrial parks. There is a delicate balance of nature. If one small part is removed, it will effect all the other parts. For example, if certain trees are cut down, bats will have no place to roost. If they cannot roost, they cannot breed. If there are no bats, there will be no animal, or bird to eat certain insects that plague our crops.
Yes. Our environment has been affected by the absence of certain animals. Certain flowers are pollinated by butterflies, which migrate from Canada to Mexico. Some of the breeding grounds of these butterflies were destroyed. Now these flowers are disappearing from certain areas. We will no longer be able to enjoy their beauty.
Yes. The quality of our life has been changed America used to be covered with giant trees. Now we have to visit them in one small park. Rain forests around the world are being cut down to make room for humans. We will never be able to see or study this fragile ecosystem.
I would encourage us humans to look for other alternatives for our farmlands, housing, and industries. We have alternatives; the animals do not.
46 What is a very important skill a person should learning in order to be successful in the world today? Choose one skill and use specific reasons and examples to support your choice.
The one skill I would choose for success is tolerance. I do not define success economically. I define success socially. To succeed in the future, we will need to be tolerant of one another’s background, opinions, and lifestyle.
The world is becoming increasingly mobile. We no longer are able to live and work only with people who went to the same schools and went to the same parties as our parents and we did. Now, we will work directly with people whose backgrounds are completely different from ours. We must be tolerant of these differences as they must be tolerant of us if we are to live and work together amiably.
We cannot stop speaking to people or start a war just because there is a difference in opinion. We must learn to be tolerant of one another and respect these differences in opinion. We have to find a common ground, an idea we can both agree on. Once we have agreement on one subject, it will be easier to settle differences in other subjects.
Different people have different lifestyles. We must accept these differences even though they may be different than what we are used to. Woman can live on their own, hold important jobs, and raise children on their own. Men can stay home and take care of children. Social roles can change and we must be tolerant of these changes.
To succeed socially, you must be adapted to differences. You must be tolerant of all peoples regardless of their background, their opinions, or their lifestyles.
At school, I have seen many very bright students do poorly on exams. They count on their intelligence to get them through. However, unless they do their homework every day, participate in class discussions, and study for exams, they will be the bottoms of the class.
Many salespeople can talk with anyone and convince him or her to buy something. They have a natural ability to sell. They must however apply some hard work to this skill. They must learn a lot about their customers, about the product they are selling, and about the market, they must put some effort into the paper work that goes along with the sale. If they don’t follow through, the sale will not be made.
Whatever the area, whether on the playing field, at school, or on the sales floor, a person must not rely on his natural ability along if he or she wants to succeed. They must work hard to be a success.
41 The expression “Never, never give up” means to keeptrying and never stop working for your goals. Do youagree or disagree with this statement? Use specificreasons and examples to support your answer.
“If at first you don’t succeed, try, try again.” These are wisewords. One should never give up. There is always anotheropportunity, another goal, or another option.
Once I ran for president of my class. Unfortunately, I lost. I lost because I did not promote myselfenough. I looked at my mistakes and decided how to correct them. The following year, I ran forpresident again. This time I gave speeches, called voters on the phone, and banded out brochures. This time I won. Never give up. There is always another opportunity.
Once I wanted to study medicine. Unfortunately, I didn’t like science. I failed all my science coursesat school. Then I realized that what I liked about medicine was helping people. I changed my goalfrom healing people to helping people. Now, I’m studying psychology. There is always anothergoal.
Once I wanted to talk with my friend. Unfortunately, his computer was down and I couldn’t e-mailhim. His phone line was busy so I couldn’t call him. Mail would take too long so I couldn’t write him. Since I really wanted to talk with him. I got on the bus and went across town to visit him. There isalways another option.
If you give up, you might as well die. My advice is to always look for another opportunity, anothergoal, or another option. There is always something else. Don’t give up.
42 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? With the help oftechnology, student nowadays can learn more information and learn it more quickly. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
Technology has greatly improved the way we get information. Students can now get moreinformation, get it more quickly, and get it more conveniently.
The Internet and the World Wide Web has opened every major library and database to studentsaround the world. Information comes not only in print form, but also in multimedia. You can getaudio and video data. You can get information about event in the past as well as events thatunfold as you watch your computer monitor.
Information comes at the speed of the Internet, which is to say in nanoseconds. You can type in afew key words in your search engine, and the engine will search the entire www to find informationon your topic. You don’t have to spend hours pouring over card catalogs in the library and lookingat the shelves. This research is done for you instantly on the Web.
It is certainly more convenient to sit at home and do research on your computer. Your computeris open 24 hours a day, unlike a library or office, which has limited hours and limited resources. Youcan do research in your pajamas while you eat breakfast. What could be more convenient?
Technology, especially the Internet, has certainly changed the quantity and quality of theinformation we get. The speed and convenience of a computer helps students learn more, morequickly.
21 EX In general ,people are living longer now. Discussthe causes of this phenomenon. Use specific reasons anddetails to develop your essay.
Today people are living to be much older than ever before. Some of the main reasons for this are the improved health careand better nutrition available to everyone.
Medical care is more available to people. Although not everyone can get the best heath care, everyone can get basic heath care and advice. When people are seriously ill, they can go to apublic hospital and be taken care of. Years ago, health care wasn"t available to everyone. Somepeople didn"t live near a doctor or a hospital, and others couldn"t pay for the care they needed. They made do with herbal medicines or folk remedies. Of course, some of these worked, but notfor the more serious diseases.
The quality of medical care has improved. That’s also a factor in longevity. Doctors know morenow about what causes disease and how to care it ,Years ago, doctors only knew about the mostbasic diseases and cures. Medicine was not very advanced. You could die from something as simpleas an infection from a cut. Now we have antibiotics and other medicines to help cure infections.
People are also living longer now because of better nutrition. We "re eating better and morehealthfully than we used to .That"s reduced the number of people with heart disease and cancer. We try to eat low-fat foods and eat more vegetable and fruits ,which are now available year-round.
Improved medical care and healthy eating habits has greatly expanded our life spans. What weneed to do now is make sure that everyone in the world has these benefits.
22 Ex We all work or will work in our jobs with many different kinds of people, in youropinion ,what are some important characteristics of a co-worker (someone you workclosely with)?Use reasons and specific example to explain why these characteristics areimportant.
We spend more time with our co-workers during a week than we do with our family, Thus, it’simportant for our co-workers to be people we can get along with. I’ve worked in a lot of offices, and I"ve found there are certain characteristics that all good co-workers have in common.
A good co-worker is very cooperative, She does her best to get along with others.
She tries to keep her end of things flowing smoothly to help others in the office. She
realizes that if one person doesn"t get her work done, it can hold up everyone else. She has apositive attitude that creates a pleasant working environment.
A good co-worker is adaptable. She is not stubborn about changes in schedules or routines, anddoesn"t object to having her job descriiption revised. That can make life miserable for everyonearound her. A good co-worker is willing to change her schedule to accommodate another worker"semergency, She has no problem with new procedures and welcomes changes when they come.
A good co-worker is helpful. She pitches in when someone falls behind in his or her work. She’swilling to do whatever it takes to get the job done. She doesn"t keep track of how often she has tofinish another"s work or take on extra work. Some co-workers do their own job, period. They haveno sense of office community. They only want to do their work, get paid and go home.
A good co-worker is a sympathetic listener, and never uses what she learns against people. shedoesn’t gossip. A bad co-worker uses negative rumors to take advantage of others.
Being a good co-worker isn"t too hard, but some people just can"t seem to manage it. Wouldn’t itbe a wonderful world if everyone could?
66 Do you agree or disagree with the followingstatement? Business should do anything they can tomake a profit. Use specific reasons and examples tosupport your position.
After I get my degree, I plan to start a business. My goal is tomake money, a lot of money. However, I can’t forget that thereare more important things in life than earning a profit. I mustconsider the people I work with, the customers I serve, and thecommunity I live in.
My colleagues are a very important part of my business. Without them, I would not have abusiness. I depend on them to help me carry on the day-to-day operations. I depend on them fortheir advice on what to sell and how to sell it. I must compensate them for their work. I can’t takelarge profits without sharing with the people who made it responsible.
Similarly, I would not have a business without my customers. I can never forget that they couldtake their business elsewhere. I must give them good value for their money. I can’t overchargethem. I must also remember that money is as important to them as it is to me. I want mycustomers to trust me and keep coming back.
My employees and I all live in the same community as our customers. We are apart of the social lifeof our community. We can’t ignore it. We must play an active part in it. I feel it is important thatsome of the profits my business earns from the community be returned to the community. Weneed to support community programs like summer jobs for high school students, campaigns toclean up the parks, and efforts to make the shopping area more attractive.
A business must make profits, but we all—workers, customers, community—must profit from asuccessful business.
67 Some people are always in hurry to go places and get things done. Other peopleprefer to take their time and live life at a slower pace. Which do you prefer? Use specificreasons and examples to support your answer.
Life is short. Haste makes waste. What’s your hurry? These three sayings characterize the way Imanage my day to day chores. I don’t want to rush through things; I prefer to take my time.
Life is short. You never know what may happen tomorrow so it is important to enjoy today. Ofcourse, some people will say that’s why it is important to cram a lot into a day. But then, howwould you possibly have time to enjoy all of those experiences. By doing a few things slowly anddoing them well, you can savor the experience.
Haste makes waste. We are not machines. We can’t rush through things mechanically. If we do, we might forget something; we might take shortcuts. By taking our time, we can do a chorecarefully, completely, and correctly.
What’s your hurry? Where’s the fire? I don’t see any need to rush to the next experience. There’sstill a lot to see and learn form the chores around you. Taking care of your baby brother forinstance can be very rewarding. You could simply keep him near you while you watch TV and writea letter and talk on the phone. Or you could devote your whole attention to him and observe hisreactions to his environment. You can observe carefully, If you are trying to do four things at thesame time.
To twist a common saying, “Don’t just do something, sit there!” Take life easy and savor eachminute. Life is shorter than you think.
43 Do you agree or disagree with the followingstatement? Games are as important for adults as theyare for children. Use specific reasons and examples tosupport your answer.
Everyone likes to play games. Games are important at any ageto keep your mind sharp, learn new things, and maintain socialskills.
People say you can’t teach old dog new tricks. Modern research has shown that senior citizens cancontinue to grow brain cells by exercising their mind. Games are a great way to exercise yourmind. By concentrating on the tactics of the game, memorizing moves, keeping track of youropponents’ strategies, you can keep your brain functioning and growing.
Some games can teach you a lot. Games that ask questions, for example, will show you what youdon’t know. (Name the capital of Albania, for example.) It is always easier to learn something whenyou realize you don’t know it.
When you play a game, you have to be considerate of your opponents. You can observe people’sreactions and the way they interact as they play. It is always interesting to watch people. Maintaining personal contacts is important for everyone.
Regardless of your age, playing games can help you keep your mind alert, learn new things, andbuild friendships.
44 Awards and prizes are given for excellence in various fields. Do these awards andprizes serve a useful purpose? Use specific reasons and examples to support youranswer.
A prize or award, whether it’s the Noble Prize, the Academy Award, or Best Handwriting Prize, isimportant. Such prizes can have economic, personal, and social effects that enrich the life of therecipient.
Prize like the Noble Prize can be a cash award. But ever for prizes that don’t, like the AcademyAward, an actress who wins best actress will be offered more roles and a higher pay than actresseswho don’t win the award. Even for the elementary student who received the school’s BestHandwriting award may get a congratulations gift from proud grandparents.
The personal benefits of receiving any award are evident. Any award winner is pleased that be orshe has been recognized for his or her work. When people receive the Academy Award, they oftencry they are so happy.
Everyone likes to be with a winner. A person who gets a prize often has many new, best friends. Awinner’s social life is much better than a loser’s social life. The winner of the Best Handwriting prizemay not be very popular with his or her jealous classmates, however.
Awards serve a very useful purpose in that their economic, personal, and social benefits add to therecognition.
11. Do you agree or disagree with the followingstatement? Universities should give the same amount ofmoney to their students" sports activities as they give totheir university libraries. Use specific reasons andexamples to support your opinion.
I disagree strongly with the idea that the same amount ofmoney should go to university sports activities as to universitylibraries. Although playing sports is a wonderful way to learn about teamwork, strategy andreaching your goals, it should not be the principal focus of a university education.
Students need the most up-to-date library facilities available to get the best education. Many ofthose facilities are very expensive to buy and maintain. These include computerized programs andaccess to internet research databases that students can use to find information all around theworld. If a university is only offering its students resources of a decade ago, it’s depriving thosestudents of a tremendous amount of information.
Even the book and magazine budget of universities has gone up tremendously in last decade. More is being published on every subject, and every university wants to have this informationavailable to its students.
It also costs money for universities to keep their libraries open. Students need to have access to allthe libraries" research tools as much of time as possible. Because students are young and can stayup all night studying, many universities are starting to leave their libraries open all night duringexam periods. This costs money, because the staff has to be paid extra to be there. It also costsmoney to run the building (electricity, heat) during that time.
Students at universities are only going to benefit from their education if they can get to all the toolsthey need to learn. Sports are secondary to the resources that students need from universitylibraries. For this reason, libraries should always be better funded than sport activities.
12 Many people visit museums when they travel to new places. Why do you thinkpeople visit museums? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
People love to visit museums when traveling to new places. I think this is because museums tellthem a lot about the culture of those places. Museums are also fun. It’s almost impossible to getbored in a museum. Every museum will have at least one thing of interest to somebody.
When visiting someplace new, you can find out about the culture of that place in many ways. Youcan go to a movie or a place of worship or a nightclub. Another option is to sit in the park andlisten to the people around you. The easiest way to learn about a place"s culture, though, is byvisiting its museums. Museums will show you the history of the place you"re visiting. They’ll showyou what art the locals think is important.
If there aren"t any museums, that tells you something, too.
Museums are fun. Even if you"re not interested in art or history, there is always something to getyour attention. Many museums now have what they call “hands-on” exhibits. These were originallydesigned to keep children occupied while their parents were looking at exhibits. However, museumshave found that adults enjoy hands-on opportunities just as much as children. These exhibits haveactivities like pushing a button to hear more about what you"re looking at, creating your own workof art, or trying on clothes like those on the models in the museum.
People also enjoy visiting museums about unusual subjects. For instance, in my hometown there"sa museum devoted to the potato. This museum has art made out of potatoes. It also tells all aboutthe history of the potato, and sells potato mementos like key chains and potato dolls.
People enjoy visiting this museum because it"s different. It’s not something they"d find in theirhometown and the museum"s curator enjoy talking about the Great Potato.
Museums are popular because they are about us. They reflect our creations, our values, and ourdreams. No matter who you are or what you like, somewhere there is a museum that will amazeand interest you.
35. You must select a person to teach others to do a job. Which one of the following is the most important for youto consider in making you selection?
1)The person’s education
2)The person’s work experience
3)The quality of the person’s previous work
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
Training someone to do a job is an important task. It requires a good education, work experience, and skilled job performance. Of these three requirements, I believe it is most important that apotential job trainer be judged on the quality of his or her previous work.
A person may be well educated, but not able to perform a job proficiently. A doctor may knowhow to treat childhood diseases, but not be able to train medical students to perform surgery. Anaccountant may be able to balance a company’s accounts, but not be able to help the company’sexecutives invest their money.
A person may have a lot of work experience, but not be able to do the job well. Time is not thebest measure of quality. A mother may spend 17-years raising her children, but not be able to trainyoung mothers to care for their infants. A typist may have typed ten-years worth of letters, butmay not type over 30 words a minute.
A person who does a job well is the one you want to be a trainer. I want to learn to fly a plane froma pilot who has faced a lot of mechanical problems in flight and never had an accident. I want tolearn how to make money from a billionaire not form a salaried investment broker.
As in all things, it is quality that we look for, not general knowledge or time spent in an occupation. Iwant others to learn from the best, so they can be the best, too.
36. Business should hire employees for their entire lives. Do you agree or disagree? Usespecific reasons and examples to support your answer.
In some business cultures, it is the practice to hire workers when they are young and employ themuntil they retire. In other business cultures companies hire people to do a job and then fire themwhen they are not needed. To me, the important considerations in today’s economy is jobperformance: speed and change. Loyalty is not a consideration.
Today there is a lot of competition and we need to hire workers who can perform a task well. Weneed to find skilled workers who can do a job without a lot of training. We need to match the jobto the worker, and, if the job changes, we change the worker.
Because of this increased competition, we need to be able to produce our goods or servicesquickly. We need young people who are willing to put in long hours. We need young people whoare aggressive and will push themselves to do their job faster.
In order to compete, we have to be innovative. By changing our workforce frequently, we canbring in new ideas. We must constantly be looking for new ways to do new things. We need freshworkers with fresh points of view.
Although a company’s loyalty to a worker and a workers loyalty to a company is a noble idea, it isnot practical today. Skilled workers do not want to be tied down to one company; they want theflexibility to improve their opportunities. Change makes the economy powerful.
9 AD Do you agree or disagree with the followingstatement? Television, newspapers, magazines, andother media pay too much attention to the personal livesof famous people such as public figures and celebrities. Use specific reasons and details to explain your opinion.
I think the media pay too much attention to the private lives offamous people. Television, newspaper magazines and web sitesdig up all kinds of past bad actions. They say that these are true reflections of a person"s character. This may be true if they occurred only a few years before, but some of these are things people didas teenagers. People in their forties are expected to explain something they did when they werefifteen. If they killed someone, obviously that"s more than a youthful mistake. Usually, though, these incidents involve experiments with drugs or being reckless in a car. They"re not somethingthat the public needs to know.
The media love to say that the public has a right to know. That"s not true. We don"t need to knowif a movie star or politician has had an extramarital affair. That is something of concern only to thepeople involved. We do need to know if someone we"re electing to public office has been involvedin shady business deals, but we don"t need to know if he or she defaulted on a loan twenty yearsago.
It seems the media dig up these facts without giving thoughtful consideration to what mighthappen. It has an effect on the celebrity"s family, especially the children. A celebrity"s good nameand credibility may be ruined before he or she can prove that rumors are false. If a case goes tocourt, paying a lawyer can use up all their money. Even if it doesn"t come to that, they may findtheir career ruined.
When are we, the public, going to make it clear to the media that we"re tired of having to watchthis kind of thing on the news? Wouldn"t it be better if they would concentrate on more importantissues?
30 PR Some people believe that the Earth is being harmed(damaged) by humanactivity. Others that human activity makes the Earth a better place to live. What is youropinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
The quality of human life has improved greatly over the past few centuries, but Earth is beingharmed more and more by human activity. As we develop our technology, we demand more fromour planet. Eventually, this will harm people as well.
Our planet gives us everything we need, but natural resources are not endless. Strip miningdevastates whole regions, leaving bare and useless ground. Deforestation removes old growthtrees that can"t be replaced. Too much fishing may harm fish populations to the point where theycan"t recover. We are too careless in taking what we want without giving anything back.
There are more people than ever, living longer that ever. So is it any surprise that many areassuffer from too much development? Anyone living in or near a city has experienced “urbansprawl”. There is a new shopping area on every corner and new houses, townhouses andapartments everywhere. Traffic gets worse and worse because planners can"t keep up withgrowth. Keeping up with human demand is hard enough. Environmental concerns come in last.
With growth comes pollution. Companies and communities dump waste into water. Landfills are fullof trash. Emissions from factories pollute the air. Barrels of industrial waste and worse, radioactivewaste, have no safe place to go. If we"re not careful, we can harm
our planet beyond repair.
People need to respect the Earth and try to preserve it. If we don"t, what kind of future will wehave?
17 Some people think that they can learn better bythemselves than with a teacher. Others think that it isalways better to have a teacher. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay.
Most of us can learn how to do something simple on our ownwith just a set of instructions. However, to learn aboutsomething more complex, it"s always best to have a teacher.
Teachers bring with them varied and useful backgrounds. They"ve been trained to teach individualsin different ways depending on their style. For instance, omen students learn better by discussing atopic. Others learn more by writing about it. Teachers can help students learn in the way that"sbest of each student. A textbook or a manual can only give you one way of learning something. Plus they"re only as helpful as your ability to understand them. A good teacher can adapt herteaching to your needs.
Teachers help you focus on what you"re learning. If you"re learning something by yourself, it’s easyto become distracted, and go on to other activities. Teachers keep your attention on the subject. They also approach a subject logically, taking it one step at a time. On your own, it"s tempting toskip parts of the learning process you think you don’t need. That can binder your ability to reallyunderstand the subject.
Learning a subject on your own is a very narrow way of learning. You can only use the informationyou get from the textbook. With a teacher, you get the information in the written materials as wellas the teacher"s own knowledge of the topic. Teachers can also provide extra materials to broadenthe scope of what you"re learning.
There"s nothing wrong with studying on your own, and a learner can always benefit from somequiet study. For the best possible learning, though, a good teacher is the biggest help you canhave.
18 What are some important qualities of a good supervisor(boss)? Use specific detailsand examples to explain why these qualities are important.
Even though job situations can be very different, there are several qualities that all good supervisorhave in common, A good boss treats all her employees fairly. She doesn"t single out one employeefor better(or worse)treatment than the others. A poor supervisor has favorites. Sometimes she"lleven use her favorites to spy on other employees. She expects them to tell her what the othersare saying about her. This can cause a lot of bad feeling among employees.
A good supervisor gives clear and understandable directions. She doesn"t constantly change hermind about what she wants employees to do. She also doesn"t get angry with an employee who isconfused and needs her to explain the directions again or more fully. Delegating authority well isanother quality of a good supervisor. She knows how to use the skills of her employees to bestadvantage. A poor supervisor insists on doing everything herself. She is unwilling to give anyauthority to others.
A good boss evaluates her employees on a reasonable ser of criteria, not on how she feels aboutthem personally. And she lets the employees know what those criteria are, so they have a fairchance of meeting them.
She gives both praise and criticism in a straightforward manner. She also offers guidance whenneeded. A poor supervisor will criticize without giving any suggestions on how to improve.
Most importantly, a good supervisor set the standards for her employee by her own behavior. Sheworks hard and treats employees like valuable assets to the company. This promotes good moraleamong her workers, and this is of great benefit to her business.
51 Do you agree or disagree with the followingstatement? Parents or other adult relatives should makeimportant decisions for their older (15 to 18 year-old) teenaged children. Use specific reasons and examples tosupport your opinion.
No one knows me as well as my parents. No one wants the bestfor me like my parents. It is natural that I should allow myparents to make important decisions for me. I think all older teenagers (15 to 18 year-olds) shouldtake their parents advice on decisions that concern their education, their social life, and their futurecareers.
My parents have always chosen the best schools for me to attend. They have encouraged me toattend special prep classes to make sure that I was well prepared for the exams. They have givenme tutors to make sure that I understood my subjects well. When it comes to choosing a college, I will trust my parents to make that decision. They know what they can afford and what will giveme a good education.
When I was young, my parents would invite children over to play with me. Over the years, I havebecome very close to these children. They are like my family. We celebrate holidays and birthdaystogether. We even go to the mountains together in the summer. My parents do not want me tofall into the wrong crowd. They do not want me to meet and fall in love with someone they do notknow. I understand that and I want to make them happy.
My father runs a very successful business and my mother is a well-known politician. They are verywell connected and they have many friends who would like me to work for them when I finishschool. This is a very good arrangement for me.
If all children follow their parents’ wishes, they would probably be happier. Parents only want thebest for their children.
52 Some people like to travel with a companion. Other people prefer to travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice.
Traveling alone is the only way to travel. If you take someone with you, you take your home withyou. When you travel alone, you meet new people, have new experiences, and learn more aboutyourself.
When I traveled with my friend, I spend all my time with that friend. We eat together and sightseetogether. When I travel alone, I spend my time looking for new friends. It is easy to fine otherpeople, either other tourists or locals, to eat with or have a coffee with. When you share meals withstrangers, they become friends.
When I travel with a friend, my routine is predictable. We maintain the same schedule that we doat home. When I travel alone, I adopt the rhythm of the place I visit. I might take a nap in theafternoon and eat dinner at 11 pm. I might go to a disco and dance all night.
When I travel with a friend, we know how we will react to things. When I travel alone, each newexperience requires a new reaction. If I don’t try new things, I won’t be able to decide if I likesomething or not. Shall I ride an ostrich or eat one?
I think it is always important to do things on your own. You can fine new friends, collect newmemories, and adopt different ways of doing things. Isn’t that the point of travel?
55 Some people prefer to work for a large company. Others prefer to work for a small company. Which wouldyou prefer? Use specific reasons and details to supportyour choice.
I would prefer to work in a large company rather than a smallone. A large company has more to offer in terms ofadvancement, training, and prestige.
In a large company, I can start at an entry-level position and work myself up to the top. I couldstart in the mailroom and, once I know the company, can apply for a managerial position. In asmall company, there is not as much room to grow.
In a large company, there are a variety of jobs. I could work in sales, in marketing, in distribution, inshopping, or in any department I applied for. I could be trained in a variety of positions and wouldhave valuable experience. In a small company, there would not be the same opportunity.
In a large company, there would be more prestige. I could brag to my friends that I worked forone of the biggest companies in the world. I would always have something to talk about when Imet strangers. If I worked in a small company, I would always have to explain what the companydid.
Working for a small company would not give me the same opportunities for advancement or on-the-job training as working for a larger company would. Nor would I be as proud to work for asmall company---unless the small company was my own.
56 People work because they need money to live. What are some other reasons thatpeople work? Discuss one or more of these reasons. Use specific examples and detailsto support your answer.
Although people work to earn money, money is not the main reason people stay in their jobs. They also work because they enjoy working, they receive job satisfaction, and they like the senseof accomplishment.
Most people work for work’s sake. They enjoy going to an office, or store, or school each day. They like to interact with other people. They like to help people solve problems, learn something, orget a product. People like to help other people.
A lot of people keep the same job because the job gives them a lot of satisfaction. They genuinelyenjoy what they do. This is true for most teachers. A teacher’s pay is not very great, but the jobsatisfaction can be very high. Helping someone learn is one of the greatest things anyone can do.
People enjoy their work because they like the sense of accomplishment. They like to know whatthey finished a project. People, who work in factories, take pride in the car they produce or thetelevision they assemble. When they see a car on the street, they can feel a sense ofaccomplishment. They helped make that car.
Money is nice, but it is not the only reason people get up and go to work each day. I believe thatpeople work because they enjoy the act of working; they find their work personally rewarding; andthey like the feeling of a job well done
23 AD Do you agree or disagree with the followingstatement? Sometimes it is better not to tell the truth .Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
I agree that sometimes it is better not to tell the truth. In somecases the truth is going to hurt someone and no good will begained by it. If so, then I don"t think that person should be toldthe truth. There are times when a person needs to know thetruth in order to make an important decision, There are also times when telling the truth is the onlyway to help someone who"s being self-destructive. However, often telling the truth only benefitsthe teller, not the person being told.
If someone has said something nasty about a person, those words don"t need to be repeated. However, what if a person has told a shameful secret to a friend, and that friend has told the secretto others? Then that person needs to know that she can"t trust her friend, Otherwise ,she mighttell that friend other secrets.
What if someone is doing something self-destructive, like partying all night in college instead ofstudying? Then he needs to be told that this behavior is upsetting his friend who are worried abouthim. However, if he skips class and teacher asks his friend why he isn"t there, it’s not necessary forthe friend to tell the truth. He doesn"t have to be, but he also doesn"t have to give informationabout his friend"s behavior.
Sometimes people needs to know the truth before they can make an important decision. Supposeyou"re selling your house and you know there"s water in the basement. Then you should tell thetruth about that to anyone interesting in buying your house. If you don’t, you could be in troublelegally as well as ethically! However, you don"t need to tell the truth about the cranky neighborwho lives next door. The neighbor may not be as cranky with someone else as he was with you. Sometimes It"s better not to tell.
24 AD In some countries, teenager have jobs while they are still srudents. Do you thinkthis is a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details.
I don"t think it is a good ideas for teenagers to have jobs while they are still students. It caninterfere with their studies, It can disrupt their home life, and it takes away part of their childhoodthat their can never replace.
Education today is very complex and difficult .In order to learn and get good grades, a studentmust work very hard and concentrate, This means attending classes from early in the morninguntil late afternoon, then doing research for projects, then going home and doing homework. It’s abusy schedule for everyone. For someone trying to hold down a job, it’s even harder. Studentsneed all their energy for their studies. If they"re working after class at night, they’re going to betired the next day. They won"t be able to concentrate. This will have a negative impact on theirlearning, and eventually on their grades.
Having a job can also disrupt a teenager"s home life. Families spend less and less
time together. If a teenager has a job to go to after school, he won"t be home for dinner.
He won"t be home after dinner either, and may not get home until late at night, This means hedoesn"t have a lot of time to spend with his family .If he doesn"t have a car, it can mean changes inhis parents" schedule ,too. They have to drive him to work and pick him up.
The main drawback of a teenager having a job while he"s still a student is that he"s missing out onthe fun of being young. He has a whole lifetime in which he"ll have to earn a living. This is the lastfree time he"ll have, It’s the last chance he"ll have to hang out with friends and just enjoy himself. Soon enough he"ll have to worry about paying the rent and buying food.
Jobs bring money, but money isn"t everything. A teenager with a job gives us too much. No oneshould spend all his time at working, and especially not a teenager.
13.Some people prefer to eat at food stands orrestaurants. Other people prefer to prepare and eat foodat home. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons andexamples to support your answer.
Some people like to eat out at food stands and restaurants, while others like to prepare food at home. Often it depends onthe kind of lifestyle people have. Those with very busy jobsoutside the house don"t always have time to cook. They like the convenience of eating out. Overall, though, it is cheaper and healthier to eat at home.
While eating in restaurants is fast, the money you spend can add up. When I have dinner atrestaurant with a friend, the bill is usually over twenty dollars. I can buy a lot of groceries with thatmuch money. Even lunch at a fast-food stand usually costs five or six dollars for one person. That’s enough to feed the whole family at home.
Eating at home is better for you, too. Meals at restaurants are often high in fat and calories, andthey serve big plates of food--much more food than you need to eat at one meal. If you cookfood at home, you have more control over the ingredients. You can use margarine instead ofbutter on your potatoes, or not put so much cheese on top of your pizza. At home, you cancontrol your portion size. You can serve yourself as little as you want. In a restaurant, you may eata full plate of food “because you paid for it”.
It"s true that eating out is convenient. You don"t have to shop, or cook, or clean up. But real homecooking doesn"t have to take a lot of time. There are lots of simple meals that don"t take long tomake. In fact, they"re faster than eating out, especially if you think of the time you spend drivingto a restaurant, parking, waiting for a table, waiting for service, and driving home.
Both eating at restaurants and cooking at home can be satisfying. Both can taste good and beenjoyed with family and friends. I prefer cooking at home because of the money and health issues, but people will make the choice that fits their lifestyle best.
14 Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. Which point ofview do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.
Some people may believe that going to classes should be optional, but I disagree. I don"tunderstand how university students can expect to learn anything if they don"t attend classes. Personal experience can help people learn about themselves and the world outside the classroom, but when it comes to learning about academic subjects, students need to be in class.
In class they receive the benefit of the teacher"s knowledge. The best teachers do more than justgo over the material in than class textbook. They draw their students into discussion of thematerial. They present opposing points of view. They schedule guest speakers to come, give thestudents additional information, or show documentary films on the subject.
Also, attending classes on any subject teaches more than just facts. It teaches students how tolearn, how to absorb information and then apply what they"ve learned to other situations. Theirteacher is the best one to help them with these skills. They can"t learn them just by reading thetextbook.
Going to class also teaches students how to work with the other members of the class. Many timesstudents will be given group assignments. This is different from what they did in secondary school. Here they"re with people from different backgrounds and experiences. In this situation, they learnhow to handle working with people different from themselves to achieve a common goal.
Going to class also teaches students responsibility and discipline. Having to be at a particular placeat a particular time prepares them for getting a job. Being at a place on time with an assignmentcompleted prepares them for a career.
In short, by going to class students learn more than just information from the teacher. They alsolearn how to learn, how to work with others, and how to work responsibly. These are not optionalskills in life, so attending classes should not be optional in college.
19 Should governments spend more money onimproving roads and highways, or should governmentsspends more money on improving public transportation ( buses, trains, subways)? Why? Use specific reasons anddetails to develop your essay.
Governments should definitely spend more money on improvingall forms of public transportation. These include buses, subwaysand trains. This is the best way to preserve natural resources and reduce pollution.
As a planet, we’re dealing with a finite amount of natural resources. Once they"re gone, they can"tbe replaced. They can"t fill our need for oil and gasoline forever. But we seem to forget that andconsume them at an incredible rate. In wealthier counties, some families have two or three cars. Assoon as teenagers get their driver"s licenses, they’re given cars so their parents won"t have to drivethem places.
Public transportation hasn"t been sufficiently developed. Because of this, suburban areassurrounding cities have been allowed to sprawl more and more widely. This means that peoplecan"t even go to the store without having to hop into the car. Everything is too far away fromwhere they live. If there were better and more frequent public transportation, people would be ableto give up their cars for local driving.
As a result of all the cars being driven, we’re dealing with terrible pollution problems. In big cities, there are days during the summer when the elderly and people with respiratory problems areadvised not to leave the house. Ten years ago this was unheard of! Now it"s the norm. Publictransportation would cut down considerably on air pollution.
Public transportation also encourages a sense of community. People who travel to work togetherall the time get to know each other. Car isolate us from neighbors. However, people feel they needto drive because they can"t depend on public transportation to fit their schedules. If more moneywere available, buses, subways and trains could run 24 hours a day. Then they would be availableall the time to the people who need them.
I always try to take public transportation whenever possible, and I encourage friends andneighbors to try it too. I think we must support public transportation in order to create a betterworld.
20 It is better for children to grow up in the countryside than in a big city. Do youagree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay.
There are advantages and disadvantages to a childhood in either the country or a city. It"s hard tosay which is better. Growing up in the country means a certain amount of isolation. You"re in asmall town or on a armband not with a lot of people. Even more important, the people you meeteveryday tend to be just like you. Most will be the same race as you, have the same backgroundas you, and will have gone to the same school as you. In the city, the people you meet aredifferent. There are different races and different cultures. You get a more interesting mix.
City people tend to come from a lot of different places and move around a lot. So, there isn"t thesense of community in the city that you have in the country. People in the city can live in thesame apartment building for twenty years and never get to know their neighbors. In the country, everybody knows everybody. For a child, this means the country is more secure. A child can getlost or hurt in the city and have no one to turn to. In the country, everyone’s a neighbor. Peoplein the country feel connected to each other.
A child growing up in the city has the advantages of a lot of interesting and exciting place to visit. He or she can go to the zoo, museum, art galleries and concerts. There are a lot of restaurantswith different kinds of food. It’s easy to see every new movie that comes out. Child in the countrydon"t have a lot of these activities nearby.
All in all, I think a childhood in the city is better because it prepares you more for what real life is like.
A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position.
I have been living in a peace and quiet town for about 10 years. All people around here is so kind, and the landscape is so beautiful that I love this town very much. Recently I heard news that a company will set up a new factory near my community. I was shocked and I hold a negative opinion about this decision.
The main reason why I oppose this plan is that establishing a new factory will cause air pollution. As we know, a factory will give off a lot of waste air which is harmful to people"s health. Even though the factory will take measurements to purify the air, it can not make the air as clean as before. It is no doubt that people"s health will be affected by the air emitted from the factory.
Another reason is that a factory makes too much noise. My community is always a quiet place and this is just what I like the most. A factory will cause the town to become too noisy. For example, every morning, we can be awake from our dreams by the noise of buses which take workers to the factory. The noise of engines will also influent our temper, and may cause us susceptible to anger, and easily lose temper.
Furthermore, a strong reason to oppose this idea is that building a factory will destroy the landscape of this town. Most people living in this town make their living by cultivating and harvesting crops. The factory is inappropriate with the landscape of the town and it will occupy the land that is used to farming.
Of course, building a factory also has advantages to some extent. For example, it will bring more working opportunity for local people, and also it will help developing the local economics. But comparing with the disadvantages, I strongly oppose the idea to build a factory near my community.
If a large factory is going to be built near your community, is it good or bad? It’s a quite difficult question to answer. Because there are many aspects to take into your consideration, the advantages and the disadvantages. Let’s talk about that.
First, a large factory, especially a large chemical factory is quite harmful to our environment when it is built near our community. It will affect our daily life a lot. All the chemical factories will produce a lot of waste and most of the wastes are harmful to the environment, including poisonous gas and liquid. Some of them can not be entirely broken down. If they are released into the air or the river, it will affect our health. And also the factory may produce a lot of noise. The environment we want to live in is a quiet and peaceful one, so the noise will be quite boring. And yes, noise also affects our health.
Still one thing, a factory can be very dangerous. Because a fire or a explosion may break out in the factory. If it’s very near our home, it’s quite dangerous.
But in other hand , a factory may be a good news to us. It can provide more jobs for us, especially for the young people in our community. Since the factory is near, it’s so convenient to go to work.. and the factory will get more chances to our area. It will help to develop our area. So if the factory can bring us a lot of chances, we will agree to build one. But the most important things are:
1. Build the factory in a safe distance from our community, not too near.
2. Make sure that the factory can deal with the waste properly. Do not release the poisonous gas
into the air, and not release the waste water into the river nearby.
3. Make sure the security guard in the factory works very well.
I support the idea that a factory to be built near our community. I list my reasons as follows. Firstly, a new factory near our community helps to improve living standard of people in our community. The factory will employ a lot of workers. As a consequence, the unemployment rate will drop significantly. Many people in our community will find a job in the factory. As people"s income increases, they will be able to spend more money on their food, clothing and leisure time, and the quality of life will be increased.
Secondly, a new factory will bring prosperity to our community. The tax collected from a factory is an important source of revenue for our town. As people have higher income, income tax collected will also be increased. The town will be able to spend more money on infrastructures and other development. Moreover, in order to accommodate more workers, more homes and stores will be needed. This will boost real estate development in our community.
Some people say that a factory would bring smog and pollution, and destroy the quality of the air and water in town. This is not the truth. Modern technologies have made today"s factories technology intensive and brought pollutions to the minimum. There are also worries that the social structure of this community will be changed and the traditional life will be affected. We should understand that society needs to evolve and we cannot always stay in the old time.
Of course, there will be some drawbacks of building a new factory here. But in my opinion, the benefits outweigh the dangers. I strongly support to build a factory here, and hope that others feel the same way.
25 PR A person you know is planning to move to yourtown or city .What do you think this person would likeand dislike about living in your town or city? Why? Usespecific reasons and details to develop your essay.
A friend of mine from college is moving to my city, so I havebeen thinking about what she would and wouldn"t like about it, I’d say the quality of life here, as far as fun and activities areconcerned, is very good. The quality of life isn"t very good, though, in other important ways.
Living in a lager city is exciting, but you pay a price for it. There are lots of interesting things to do, and good restaurants with food from around the world. There are museums, art galleries, and lotsof movie theaters. However. the crime rate is high, and people have to be careful about wherethey go at night. There"s a lot of traffic most of the time, and finding a parking space can be aproblem. There are also a lot of people living here. Sometimes it feels too crowded.
In a big city like mine, housing is very expensive. If costs a lot even if you"re just renting anefficiency apartment. The good side is that there"s a lot of choice about where you want to live andhow you want to live. You can find apartment of all sizes in different settings. Houses of equalvariety are available for sale or rent.
If my friend likes the great outdoors, she might be disappointed. Unfortunately, my city doesn"thave a lot of wide open green spaces, and there aren"t a lot of trees on the streets. We"re not nearthe ocean, and the mountains are a day"s drive from here. Still, we do have some natural areas. For example, we have a beautiful big park. It even has a lake in the middle that"s used for iceskating in the winter. There’s a different kind of beauty in the city.
Thinking about it, I suppose whether my friend likes my city will depend on whether or not she likesexciting places. I hope she likes a lot of variety as far as housing and activities are concerned. If shedoes, then this is the place for her.
26 AD It has recently been announced that large shopping center may be built in yourneighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons anddetails to support your answer.
There would be both advantages and disadvantages to having a shopping center built in myneighborhood. One advantage would be the convenience. I would like to have all those storesclose by. Shopping would be much easier and faster because I wouldn"t have to drive greatdistances to get to the stores.
A shopping center would mean more choices, because there would be more stores selling differentproducts. I might have a movie theater nearby, because so many shopping centers these daysinclude movie theaters in their plans. Most shopping centers also have restaurants and a foodcourt. That means a greater variety of places to eat in our area.
Having a shopping center built in the neighborhood would also mean more jobs for thecommunity. Initially, these jobs would be in the building of the center. Later the jobs would be inthe stores, theaters, and food establishments.
Of course, these would be some disadvantages, too. Probably the biggest problem would betraffic. A lot of people would be coming to the shopping center. They’d drive through ourneighborhood to get to the center. In addition, if there wasn"t enough parking at the center, theymight look for parking space near our homes.
A shopping center might also invite more crime into our neighborhood. Parking lots after dark are abig temptation to robbers. They know people are there with money to spend. The shoppingcenter might also become a place where unruly teenagers would gather. This could cause trouble. Our town would need a community center for them to go to instead.
On the whole, though, I think my neighborhood should support having a shopping center builthere, It would bring more variety to our shopping, give us the opportunity to amuse ourselves atmovies theaters and restaurants, and bring more jobs into the area.
1.持某观点: claim ( contend reckon share the belief that ) 2. 支持某观点: advocate (maintain vote for side with be in favor of ) 3. 反对某观点: contradict (criticize be against cast doubts on ) 4. 合理的：justified ( sensible feasible convincing hold water bear much analysis) 5. 好处： advantage (benefit, merit, positive side) 6.弊端： disadvantage( defect, demerit, negative side) 7. 肯定：undoubtedly (indeed undeniably there is no denying that) 8. 不确定：be likely to ( potentially presumably) 9. 重要的：essential (significant, vital, crucial, critical, fundamental, indispensable) 10. 有益的：beneficial (conducive instrumental )
11. 有害的：detrimental (harmful virulent) 12.有争议的：controversial (disputable, contentious) 13. 普遍的：widespread ( prevalent, universal) 14显著地：considerably (significantly, remarkably, dramatically, tremendously, substantially) 15. 明显的：evident (apparent, manifest) 16. 增强：enhance (strengthen intensify) 17. 减少：decline (descend, collapse, relieve) 18. 大约：approximately(nearly, around, estimated, roughly)19. 趋势： trend(tendency, inclination) 20. 预见： predict (expect, project)
21. 带来 bring about (result in, lead to) 22. 引起 create (spark ; yield;; give rise to)23. 建立 establish (found, institute) 24. 要求 call for (request，demand) 25. 去除 eliminate(remove, eradicate) 26. 探讨 explore (examine, identify) 27. 描绘 depict (portray, illustrate) 28. 后果 consequence( aftermath; outcome) 29. 足够 adequate (enough; sufficient)30. 解决 tackle ( resolve, address)
31. 意识 awareness(consciousness) 32. 控制 curb ( regulate, censor) 33. 解释：account for ( be responsible for) 34. 投资 finance (invest in, subsidize) 35. 缓解 relieve ( ease, alleviate) 36. 压力 stress ( pressure, strain) 37. 和谐 harmony ( concordance) 38. 继承 inherit (hand down) 39. 培养 cultivate (train, foster) 40. 促进 promote ( contribute to, upgrade)
41. 适应 adapt to (adjust to, acclimate to) 42. 提供 provide (render, afford) 43. 替代 replace (substitute, take the place of) 44. 保护 preserve (protect) 45. 证据 evidence (proof) 46. 赢得 gain (acquire, attain) 47. 国外的foreign( alien, exotic) 48. 灾难 disaster (misfortune, catastrophe) 49. 发展 advance (progress) 50. 倾向于tend to ( be inclined to , be apt to)
51. 吸引 attract (allure, tempt) 52. 专注的 be absorbed in(be immersed in, devote oneself to) 53. 目的是aim at ( The purpose is ) 54. 实现 achieve (fulfill, implement) 55. 危害 endanger ( threaten; jeopardize) 56. 损害 undermine (impair, damage) 57. 阻碍 hinder (obstruct, impede) 58. 禁止 forbid (ban, prohibit) 59. 责备 blame( denounce, criticize) 60. 污染 pollute (contaminate, stain)
61. 腐蚀 erode(wear away, corrode) 62. 欺骗 deceive (cheat, defraud) 63. 冲突 conflict ( shock, tension) 64. 驱使 prompt (spur, incite) 65.贪婪的 acquisitive(money-oriented，materialistic) 66. 自私的 self-centered (selfish, inconsiderate) 67.体谅的 considerate (understanding, sympathetic) 68. 冷漠的 indifferent (apathetic, aloof) 69. 奢侈的 wasteful (luxurious, extravagant)
70. 残忍的 inhumane(brutal, barbaric) 71. 绝望的 hopeless(despairing, desperate) 72. 过分的 excessive (extravagant, exorbitant) 73. 激烈的 intense (fierce, vigorous) 74. 严厉的 stringent (rigorous, rigid) 75. 奇怪的 eccentric (odd, peculiar) 76. 难以置信的 unbelievable(incredulous, virtual) 77. 惊人的 extraordinary (marvelous, spectacular) 78. 有抱负的 ambitious(aggressive, aspirant)79. 固有的 inherent(nature, innate) 80. 稳定的 steady (stable, constant)
81.恶化 worsen (aggravate, deteriorate) 82. 夸大 exaggerate ( overstate) 83. 限制 restrain (constrain, confine) 84. 拆除 tear down(knock down, pull down) 85. 加速 accelerate (speed up, precipitate) 86. 占优势 predominate (dominate) 87. 分辨 distinguish (differentiate, discern) 88.抵消 counteract (offset, cancel out) 89. 开展 launch (conduct, carry out) 90. 颁布 enact (enforce, promulgate )
91. 生活节奏 pace of life(rhythm of life, tempo of life) 92. 影响 influence(effect, impact) 93. 差异 difference (distinction, gap) 94. 交流 communicate(exchange, associate) 95. 接触 have access to (make contact with, keep in touch with) 96. 优先 give priority to (put…into first place) 97. 节约 economize ( conserve, cherish) 98. 参与 participate in ( take part in, engage in) 99. 措施 measure (step, action) 100. 注意 beware ( prevent, guard against)
15 Neighbors are the people who live near us. In youropinion, what are the qualities of a good neighbor? Usespecific details and examples in your answer.
If you have a good neighbor, you are a lucky person. You havesomeone who cares about your needs and your property, whois helpful in the little day-to-day situations that come up, andwho is supportive in times of crisis.
A good neighbor is someone who, for instance, understands that your children may occasionallyrun across his lawn, even though you tell them not to. He"ll realize that children can be carelessabout things like that, and he won"t make a big fuss about it unless it becomes a regular thing. Inthe same vein, he knows that you"ll understand if some of the trash from his trash cans blowsacross into your yard. IN other words, he is sensitive to the unintentional things that can happen. He doesn"t make a big deal about them.
A good neighbor is also respectful of your property. For example, she asks your permission beforedoing anything that interferes with what"s yours. This means she wouldn"t plant a huge tree inbetween your houses without asking how you feel about it. If she wanted to put up a fence, shewould let you know first. She might work with you to decide where it should be placed. Maybe thetwo of you would even split the cost.
A good neighbor would lend you some milk if you ran out . She"d give you a ride to work if yourcar was broken, and let your children stay at her house in the evening if you got stuck workingovertime. You would do the same for her. Both of you would help make the other"s life easier.
when something really awful happens to you, like a death in the family, a good neighbor willvolunteer to help in any way he can. This could mean something small, like making some casserolesto put in your freezer to feed vesting relatives, Or it could mean something big, like helping you getthrough the sadness of the funeral.
I think only someone who has experienced a bad neighbor can really appreciate a good one! Agood neighbor can be a good friend. He or she can make all the difference in the world to your life.
16 It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built in yourneighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons anddetails to support your answer.
I can see both advantages and disadvantages to having a new restaurant built in ourneighborhood. I"m worried about traffic and how it will affect our neighborhood. However, I thinkthat it will benefit local businesses and increase appreciation for our neighborhood. Overall, I think itis a good idea.
Traffic congestion is always a concern when you build something new. Our streets are narrow, withparking on both sides. More cars traveling through the neighborhood could cause a lot ofcongesting. Traffic means parking problems, too. Our neighborhood has very few garagesattached to the houses. Most of us depend on finding a space to park on the street. If the newrestaurant is built, we’ll be competing for those spaces with the restaurant"s patrons. Plus, if therestaurant offers wallet parking, it"ll be even worse. Valet parkers work in teams to grab everypossible space available on the street.
I"m also concerned about the type of patrons this new restaurant will bring into our neighborhood. A family restaurant wouldn"t be a problem. However, if it"s going have a bar and dancing, thenthere could be problems. The restaurant would stay open later, and people leaving the restaurantmight be drunk. Who wouldn"t worry about rowdy customers staggering around ourneighborhood in the early morning hours, looking for their cars?
I have to admit, though, there are advantages to a new restaurant. Our neighborhood couldcertainly use the jobs the restaurant would provide. Not only that, the money neighborhoodresidents would earn there would likely be spent at other neighborhood businesses. This would givea boost to those businesses and make our neighborhood more prosperous.
A new restaurant would also attract a lot of people to our neighborhood. They could see what anice area this is to live. That might attract new residents to the neighborhood. That would be agood thing, because we"ve been losing residents to the suburbs the last couple of years.
There are a lot of details to consider, but all in all, I support the idea of this new restaurant in ourneighborhood.
70 Do you agree or disagree with the followingstatement? Teachers should be paid according to howmuch their students learn. Give specific reasons andexamples to support your opinion.
Some communities have decided to base evaluations ofteachers on students’ test scores. It’s these evaluations thatdetermine how much teachers will be paid. I don’t think this is avery good idea for several reasons.
First of all, if teachers’ salaries are going to be based on how much students learn, then someteachers will start to teach their students only what they need to get high test scores. This meansthat students will miss out on a lot of education that can’t be measured on a test.
For instance, one of the best methods to help students understand a subject is encouraging themto discuss it. A common practice is to divide the class into groups, have each group discuss thesubject, and then have them report back to the whole class. This kind of shared learning can leadto a fuller understanding. It also teaches students how to discuss and debate ideas. However, itdoesn’t supply facts to show off on a test.
Another problem with basing teachers’ salaries on how much their students learn is that teachersmay ignore students who have learning difficulties. Some students learn more slowly than othersand need more personal attention. If a teacher is worried about tests, he may feel he has to pushthe majority of the students to cram facts. That effort will take all his time. He won’t be able to helpthe less able students.
It’s true there are teachers who “burn out” after many years teaching and just don’t care howmuch their students learn. Basing their salaries on their students’ test scores may improve theirefforts. However, it’s not fair for the majority of teachers. They deserve and need to be judged byother criteria.
71 If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to an internationalexhibition, what would you choose? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explainyour choice.
If I were asked to send one thing representing my country to an international exhibition. I’d sendsomething unexpected: one week’s worth of television programming. These programs would bestrepresent my county. They show how the citizens of my country live and what they think andfeel.
The dramas on television are very realistic. They show how people in different parts of the countrygo about their daily lives. They show how they earn their livings, how they deal with crime, andhow they interact with each other. The dramas also show how people in various economic groupsdress, what kinds of houses they live in, and what kinds of education their children receive.
The comedies indicate what people in my country think is funny. Even though the situations areexaggerated, they reflect how my culture deals with very basic human situations. Peopleeverywhere understand falling in love, raising a family, and earning a living.
The documentaries show what issues we’re concerned about and how we want to resolve them. Some documentaries tell stories from our history. Others look into the future. They speculate onhow we’ll function as a country in the new millennium. Still others examine our political system, itsfailures and its successes.
The sports programs show what we think about winning and losing. They demonstrate how wefeel about fairness. Some of the wealthiest people in our country are the athletes we watch playingprofessional sports. This, also, is a reflection of our values.
Television is a common cultural experience in my country. It reflects my country’s uniquepersonality. I think it would be the perfect way to show what my county is like.